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日露戦争の日本の勝利が世界に与えた影響(英語版)

日露戦争の日本の勝利が
世界に与えた影響


Reception around the world[edit]

To the Western powers, Japan's victory demonstrated the emergence of a new Asian regional power. With the Russian defeat, some scholars have argued that the war had set in motion a change in the global world order with the emergence of Japan as not only a regional power, but rather, the main Asian power.[89] Rather more than the possibilities of diplomatic partnership were emerging, however. The US and Australian reaction to the changed balance of power brought by the war was mixed with fears of a Yellow Peril eventually shifting from China to Japan.[90] American figures such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Lothrop Stoddard saw the victory as a challenge to western supremacy.[91] This was reflected in Austria, where Baron Christian von Ehrenfels interpreted the challenge in racial as well as cultural terms, arguing that "the absolute necessity of a radical sexual reform for the continued existence of the western races of men has ... been raised from the level of discussion to the level of a scientifically proven fact". To stop the Japanese "Yellow Peril" would require drastic changes to society and sexuality in the West.[92]

Certainly the Japanese success increased self-confidence among anti-colonial nationalists in colonised Asian countries - Vietnamese, Indonesians, Indians and Filipinos - and to those in declining countries like the Ottoman Empire and Persia in immediate danger of being absorbed by the Western powers.[93][94] It also encouraged the Chinese who, despite having been at war with the Japanese only a decade before, still considered Westerners the greater threat.


"We regarded that Russian defeat by Japan as the defeat of the West by the East. We regarded the Japanese victory as our own victory"

ーSun Yat-sen's speech on Pan-Asianism

Even in far-off Tibet the war was a subject of conversation when Sven Hedin visited the Panchen Lama in February 1907.[95] While for Jawaharlal Nehru, then only an aspiring politician in British India, "Japan's victory lessened the feeling of inferiority from which most of us suffered. A great European power had been defeated, thus Asia could still defeat Europe as it had done in the past."[96] And in the Ottoman Empire too, the Committee of Union and Progress embraced Japan as a role model.[97]

In Europe, subject populations were similarly encouraged. James Joyce's novel Ulysses, set in Dublin in 1904, contains hopeful Irish allusions as to the outcome of the war.[98] And in partitioned Poland the artist Jozef Mehoffer chose 1905 to paint his "Europa Jubilans" (Europe rejoicing), which portrays an aproned maid taking her ease on a sofa against a background of Eastern artefacts. Painted following demonstrations against the war and Russian cultural suppression, and in the year of Russia's defeat, its subtly coded message looks forward to a time when the Tsarist masters will be defeated in Europe as they had been in Asia.[99]

The significance of the war for oppressed classes as well as subject populations was clear too to Socialist thinkers.


"The Russo-Japanese War now gives to all an awareness that even war and peace in Europe - its destiny - is not decided between the four walls of the European concert, but outside it, in the gigantic maelstrom of world and colonial politics.
And it's in this that the real meaning of the current war resides for social-democracy, even if we set aside its immediate effect: the collapse of Russian absolutism. This war brings the gaze of the international proletariat back to the great political and economic connectedness of the world, and violently dissipates in our ranks the particularism, the pettiness of ideas that form in any period of political calm."

ーRosa Luxemburg, In the Storm, Le Socialiste, May 1?8, 1904 (translator: Mitch Abidor)

It was this realisation of the universal significance of the war that underlines the historical importance of the conflict and its outcome.






by kabu_kachan | 2019-02-16 21:15 | 歴史 | Comments(0)
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